PDF NEW We Are Cuba!: How a Revolutionary People Have Survived in a Post–Soviet World ¶ Helen Yaffe
Cuba Libre to be COVID Libre Five Vaccines and CountingOn 23 March 2021 British Prime Minister Boris Johnson told a roup of Conservative Party backbenchers The reason we have the vaccine success is because of capitalism because of reed my friends Johnson was articulating the dogma that the pursuit of private profit through capitalist free markets leads to efficient outcomes In reality however Britain s accomplishments in developing the Oxford AstraZeneca vaccine and in the national vaccination rollout have to do with state investments than the market mechanism Government money subsidised the vaccine development at the University of Oxford and it is the state funded National Health Service that has carried out the vaccination programme Johnson did not admit that it is due to capitalism and reed that Britain now has the fifth worst Covid 19 mortality rate in the world with over 126500 deaths almost 1857 per million people in the population and countingThe British overnment like most neoliberal regimes refused to take the measures necessary to slow and halt community transmission it failed early on to provide health care and social care workers with adeuate PPE and other resources which could have saved the lives of hundreds of frontline staff who died as a result It contracted private businesses to carry out essential activities most with little or no relevant experience for example instead of euipping the community based GP system of the National Health Service to take charge of track and trace the overnment dished out 37 billion to Serco to manage part of the system In public health terms it has been disastrous but measured by Boris Johnson s celebrated standards of capitalism and Thieves Nights greed it is has indeed excelled Thereatest beneficiaries of Britain s response to the pandemic have been the private corporations making huge profits Around 2500 Accenture Deloitte and McKinsey consultants are on an average daily rate of 1000 with some paid 6624 a dayJohnson has now laid out a road map for reopening the economy As a result even the most optimistic scenario predicts a third wave between September 2021 and January 2022 resulting in at least 30000 additional deaths in Britain These deaths are preventable But it precisely because the British Miss Dulane And My Lord government is driven by the capitalism andreed that it insists that we have to learn to live with the virus so that the business of business can continueContrary to Johnson s claims this pandemic has affirmed that public healthcare needs cannot be adeuately met under a profit based system Indeed it is the absence of the capitalist profit motive which underlies the outstanding domestic and international response to Covid 19 by socialist Cuba which now has five vaccines in clinical trials and is set to be among the first nations to vaccinate its entire populationBy reacting uickly and decisively by mobilising its public healthcare system and world leading biotech sector Cuba has kept contagion and fatalities low In 2020 Cuba confirmed a total of 12225 coronavirus cases and 146 deaths in a population of 112 million among the lowest rates in the Western Hemisphere In November 2020 the airports were opened leading to a surge with infections in January 2021 than the whole of the previous year By 24 March 2021 Cuba had registered fewer than 70000 cases and 408 deaths The death rate was 35 per million and the fatality rate was JUST 059% 22% WORLDWIDE 29% IN BRITAIN WITHIN ONE 059% 22% worldwide 29% in Britain Within one 57 brigades of medical specialists from Cuba s Henry Reeve International Contingent had treated 126 million Covid 19 patients in 40 countries they joined 28000 Cuban healthcare professionals already working in 66 countries Cuba s accomplishments are extraordinary iven that from 2017 onwards the Trump administration punitively unleashed 240 new sanctions actions and measures to tighten the 60 year blockade of Cuba including nearly 50 additional measures during the pandemic which cost the health sector alone over 200 millionCuba has one on the offensive against Covid 19 mobilising the prevention focussed community based public healthcare system to carry out daily house visits to actively detect and treat cases and channelling the medical science sector to adapt and produce new treatments for patients and Covid 19 specific vaccines These advances bring hope not just for Cuba but for the worldWhat is special about Cuba s vaccinesSome 200 Covid vaccines are being developed worldwide by 25 March 2021 "23 Candidates Had Advanced " candidates had advanced phase III clinical trials Two of those were Cuban Soberana 2 and Abdala No other Latin American country has developed its own vaccine at this stage Cuba has three vaccine candidates in earlier stage trials Soberana 1 Soberana Plus and an intranasal needle free vaccine called Mambisa How do we explain this accomplishment Cuba s biotech sector is uniue entirely state funded and owned free from private interests profits are not sought domestically and is channelled to meet public health needs Dozens of research and institutions collaborate sharing resources and knowledge instead of competing which facilitates a fast track from research and innovation to trials and application Cuba has the capacity to produce 60 70% of the medicines it consumes domestically an imperative due to the US blockade and the cost of medicines in the international market There is also fluidity between universities research centres and the public health system These elements have proven vital in the development of Cuba s Covid 19 vaccinesThere are five types of Covid 19 vaccines being developed Barack Obama globally Viral vector vaccines which inject an unrelated harmless virus modified to deliver SARS CoV 2enetic material Oxford AstraZeneca Gamaleya and SputnikV Genetic vaccines containing a segment of SARS CoV 2 virus enetic material Pfizer Moderna Inactivated vaccines containing disactivated SARS CoV 2 virus SinovacButantan SinoPharm Bharat Biotec Attenuated vaccines containing weakened SARS CoV 2 virus Codagenix Protein vaccines containing proteins from the virus which trigger an im. The extraordinary account of the Cuban people’s struggle for survival in a post Soviet world In the aftermath of the fall of the Soviet Union Cuba faced the start of a crisis that decimated its economy Helen Yaffe examines the astonishing developments that took place during and beyond this period Drawing on archival research and interviews with Cuban leaders.
Helen Yaffe ç 8 DOWNLOADD ten old medals from the World Intellectual Property Organisation WIPO over 26 years their biotech products were exported to 49 countries prior to the pandemic including vaccines used in childhood immunisation programmes in Latin America Cuba has stated that its Covid 19 vaccines will be exported to other countries This brings hope to low and middle income nations that simply cannot afford to vaccinate their populations at high prices between 10 and 30 per dose demanded by big pharma In February 2021 the Bureau of Investigative Journalism reported that US company Pfizer has been bullying Latin American countries into putting up sovereign assets such as embassy buildings and military bases as Oklahoma Statesman guarantees against the cost of any future legal cases in relation to their Covid 19 vaccines3Through an agreement with Iran s Pasteur Institute 100000 Iranians will take part in the phase III clinical trials for Soberana 2 and another 60000 people will participate in Venezuela Other countries including Mexico Jamaica Vietnam Pakistan and India have stated their interest in receiving the Cuban vaccines as has the African Union which represents all 55 nations in Africa It is likely that Cuba will apply a sliding scale to its Covid 19 vaccine exports as it does with the export of medical professionals so what it charges reflects the countries ability to payWhat Cuba has achieved is remarkable but as Caballero states without the unjust US blockade Cuba could have and better results Cuba has become a world leader in biotechnology because it has a socialist state with a centrally planned economy that has invested in science and technology and puts human welfare before profit that is with the absence of capitalism andreed that British Prime Minister Johnson celebratesHelen YaffeNotes1 Rapid response letter in The BMJ 1 March 20212 Email correspondence 9 March 20213 Held to ransom Pfizer demands The Smash Smash Truck governmentsamble with state assets to secure vaccine deal Bureau of Investigative Journalism 23 February 2021A version of this essay was published in in Fight Racism Fight Imperialism No 280 AprilMay 2021Helen Yaffe is a lecturer in Economic and Social History Would heartily recommend this book to anyone wishing to understand Cuban state and society as it understands itself We Are Cuba is a refreshing antidote to the misleading historical narrative which places propagandising for social dissent ahead of explaining the actual functioning of real institutions Yaffe s basic and rigorously justified premise is that Cuba s state socialism has such broad and popular participation from its citizenry that attempting to write a history of the system by juxtaposing the The Hatchet government against the citizen is a distortion of reality The reality rather is that ordinary Cubans have contributed huge personal resources to the success of the Cuban revolution and the revolution in turn has uplifted ordinary Cubans to world leaders in areat many fields against a Adalet A Ao Lu Nun Romanc L great many odds Yaffe backs this up with rich and plentiful first hand accounts fromovernment ministers economists bureaucrats scientists doctors social workers and trade unionists This extensive cast all appear to support Yaffe s view that Cuban socialism has so massively uplifted the ability of ordinary people to achieve extraordinary things that the aspirations of state are functionally inseparable from the aspirations of the populous If you are looking for a political or diplomatic history of Cuba put this book away You won t learn much about the events of the revolution the Missile crisis CIA assassination plots on Castro etc This book picks the story up later showing the reader how Cuba transformed itself and continues to transform itself since the end of the Cold War This is an important rectification of the scholarship Cuban socialism has now existed for longer since the end of Soviet communism than before and historical works which focus purely on the late 50searly 60s no longer provide an adeuate tool for understand the Cuban system in its longer provide an adeuate tool for understand the Cuban system in its However for those perhaps planning a visit to Cuba or simply interested in the contours of Cuban society in the post Castro period this book will be of deep interest Interesting and enjoyable readHighlights includeThe chapter covering the early history of relations between Cuba and the USA particularly their economic relationship which was determined by the logic of the expansion of US corporate capitalismemerging imperialism and the subordination of Cuban industries to its interestsChapters on Cuba s progress in energy biotechnology and medicine which exemplified their revolutionary spirit and international solidarity So I am done with this book It s June but Helen Yaffe s book has thus far very high chances of becoming my personal book of the yearThe book is about the struggle of the cuban people and their I Know You By Heart government to maintain build on and expand the socialist society created after the 1959 revolution lead by Fidel Castro In Chapters concentrating on different aspects of life on the small island Yaffe explains how the society and its people have evolved from the 1960s to today The bookoes as far as recent changes like the new 2019 Constitution and the renewed US blockage of Cuban resources by the Trump Administration Reading this book you will learn what has happened in the country for the last 60 years You will learn how compassionate its leadership AND the people have been to keep the revolutionary spiri Can t recommend this enough Picked it up after listening to an interview with Yaffe on the Cosmopod podcast and the bool delivers Just absolutely critical to et a better understanding of what Cuba has been
through what it s had to do deal with after the collapsewhat it s had to do deal with after the collapse the soviet bloc and with the cruel and rotesue US sanctions Great information on their efforts in energy biotech and health care delivery along with their recent constitutional reforms Can t imagine not supporting them in their efforts as they try to deliver a just society on their own term despite all the things allayed against them They haven t ot. Amining key domestic initiatives including the creation of one of the world’s leading biotechnological industries its energy revolution and medical internationalism alongside recent economic reforms Yaffe shows why the revolution will continue post Castro This is a fresh compelling account of Cuba’s socialist revolution and the challenges it faces today. Mune response Novavax SanofiGSKThe five Cuban vaccines under clinical trials are all protein vaccines they carry the portion of the virus spike protein which binds to human cells it enerates neutralising antibodies to block the binding process Dr Marlene Ramirez Gonzalez explains that they are subunit vaccines one of the most economical approaches and the type for which Cuba has the Sonsuzlu A Nokta greatest know how and infrastructure From protein S the antigen or part of the SARS CoV2 virus that all Covid vaccines target because it induces the strongest immune response in humans Cuban candidates are based only on the part that is involved in contact with the cell s receptor the RBD receptor binding domain which is also the one that induces thereatest amount of neutralizing antibodies This strategy is not exclusive to Cuban vaccines But Soberana 02 does distinguish itself from the rest of the world s candidates as the only conjugate vaccine Currently in phase III clinical trials it combines RBD with tetanus toxoid which enhances the immune responseCuba had already developed another vaccine with this principle It is uimi Hib the first of its kind to be approved in Latin America and the second in the world against Haemophilus influenzae type b coccobacilli responsible for diseases such as meningitis pneumonia and epiglottitis 1Idania Caballero a pharmaceutical scientist at BioCubaFarma points out that the vaccines build on decades of medical science and work on infectious diseases The mortality rate in Cuba due to infectious diseases even in times of Covid is less than 1% Cuba today vaccinates against 13 diseases with 11 vaccines eight of which are produced in Cuba Six diseases have been eliminated as a result of vaccination schedules The vaccines produced with these technologies have been administered even to children in the first months of life 2The Soberana vaccines are produced by the Finlay Institute in partnership with the Centre for Molecular Immunology CIM and the Centre of Biopreparados Soberana means sovereign reflecting its economic and political importance without a domestic product Cuba would struggle to access foreign vaccines either due to the US blockade or to the cost Soberana vaccines insert The Ethnicity Reader genetic information into superior mammalian cells Soberana Plus is a the world s first vaccine for Covid 19 convalescent patients to reach clinical trialsThe other vaccines Abdala and Mambisa names which also pay tribute to Cuba s struggle for independence are produced by the Centre of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology CIGB These vaccines insertenetic information in a less evolved organism a unicellular microorganism the yeast Pichia Pastoris They build on the CIGB s extraordinary record including its Hepatitis B vaccines used in Cuba for 25 yearsBy developing different vaccine platforms those institutions avoid competing for resources Caballero explains that Cuba has the capacity to produce two independent vaccine chains with over 90 million vaccines annually while maintaining the reuired production of other products for the domestic market and for export The Cuban vaccines reuire three doses and because they are stable at temperatures of between 2 and 8 degrees do not reuire costly special refrigeration euipmentPhase III trials and interventional studies By late March phase III trials were underway for Soberana 2 and Abdala each incorporating
44000 volunteers over 19 years old in regions with high incidence of Covid 19 2 is being administered in Havana and Abdala in Santiago de Cuba and Guantanamo Analysis and follow up for phase III trial patients will continue until January 2022 to investigateover 44000 volunteers over 19 years old in regions with high incidence of Covid 19
whether they prevent transmission how long immunity lasts and other uestions that no vaccine producers can yet answer However an additionalthey prevent transmission how long immunity lasts and other uestions that no vaccine producers can yet answer However an additional healthcare workers in Havana are receiving Soberana 2 shots as part of an interventional study a form of clinical trial that can be authorised after drug safety has been demonstrated in phase II Intervention studies do not involve double blind testing or placebos Another 120000 healthcare workers in western Cuba will receive Abdala in the next few weeks Other interventional studies in the capital will see 17 million people in Havana most of the adult population vaccinated by the end of May 2021 meaning that 2 million Cubans will have been fully vaccinatedAssuming satisfactory results in June the real national vaccination campaign will begin prioritising Our Bodies Ourselves And The Work Of Writing groups according to risk factors and starting with over 60 year olds By the end of August 2021 six million Cubans over half the population will have been covered and by the end of the year Cuba will be among the world s first countries to fully vaccinate its entire populationCuban medical scientists are confident that they have the capacity and experience to adapt their vaccine formulations technologies and action protocols to tackle new variants The next steps are for Soberana 1 and Soberana Plus to enter phase II trials and a new study involving 5 to 18 year olds will be launchedCuba and China team up on Pan CoronaCuba s CIGB have teamed up with colleagues in China to work on a new vaccine called Pan Corona designed to be effective on different strains of the coronavirus It will use parts of the virus that are conserved not exposed to variation toenerate antibodies combined with parts directed at cellular responses The Cubans contribute the experience and personnel while the Chinese provide euipment and resources The research will take place at the Yongzhou Joint Biotechnology Innovation Center in China s Hunan Province which was
"established last year "last year euipment and laboratories designed by Cuban specialists Gerardo Guillen director of biomedical science at CIGB said the approach could protect against epidemiological emergencies of new strains of coronavirus that may exist in the future The project builds on nearly two decades of medical science collaboration between Cuba and China including five joint ventures in the biotech sectorA vaccine for the Ben Bir G Rgen Dal Y M global southCuban professionals have receive. thinkers and activists this book tells for the first time the remarkable story of how Cuba survived while the rest of the Soviet bloc crumbled Yaffe shows how Cuba has beenradually introducing select market reforms While the government claims that these are necessary to sustain its socialist system many others believe they herald a return to capitalism Ex. ,